Basic disks and partitions

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Windows standard disk management Basic disks and partitions

Basic discis a Windows standard disk management method that manages SSDs/HDDs connected to a computer individually and stores partitioncan be recognized as an independent drive.

Implemented since Windows 2000 Dynamic disc has finished development,Not recommended for use on Windows Became.

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Checking the disk status and operations are standard Windows functions. Disk management Done in.

Windows 10/11 スタート From the context menu (right-click menu) Disk management Can be opened directly with.

partition

partition creates a partition in the disk drive, and the system physically treats it as multiple drives, and the biggest advantage is data preservation in the event of system damage.

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Even if the data on the C drive is damaged and the OS cannot boot, the disk drive MBR , GPT Stores partition information, so you can access each drive by adding a disk drive to another PC.

Normally Windows and each program C drive However, drive A and drive B are the drive letters originally assigned to the floppy disk used at system startup, and are no longer used because they are now legacy devices.

MBR and GPT

MBRGPT indicates the partition format in the auxiliary storage device such as SSD/HDD, and disk drives of 2 TB or less are defaulted to Master Boot Record ( MBR ) is used.

Master Boot Record

Master Boot Record The (MBR) acts like a map of the in-disk configuration and is first read by auxiliary storage (such as a hard disk) that has information about the partition.

OS is installed in the MBR partition information Boot partition Is included, and the OS such as Windows boots based on the MBR information.

Since the MBR exists for each physical drive, you can access the drive even if you remove the connected drive from your computer and connect it to another computer.Due to the old standard, it cannot recognize more than 2 TB of space, and the maximum number of primary partitions that can be created for one physical drive is four..

GUID Partition Table

GUID Partition Table ( GPT ) is the successor standard to MBR, which can recognize an area of ​​2 TB or more, and the maximum number of partitions that can be created is 128.

 Since GPT uses the EFI extension, it cannot be used in the BIOS environment, and in the case of 32-bit OS, it can only be used as a boot disk with Windows 8 or later.

With the increase in hard disk capacity and the spread of UEFI, there are increasing opportunities to use GPT, but when using a disk drive of 2 TB or less, MBR has excellent backward compatibility.

Partition type

MBR For format partitions Primary partitionExtended partition OS such as Windows can only be installed on the primary partition, which is recognized as a physical drive.

GPT There is no partition type because the format is primary only.

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No drive letter is set for the system disk (C drive) Reserved by system と Recovery partition Is created automatically, so there are three primary partitions.

Partition

Windows Disk management If you want to create a partition withData is lost because the disk is formattedYou can use the Disk Management app to edit the partition while preserving the data on the disk.

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format

To format the drive Normal formatQuick format Quick format reduces the time required for formatting by omitting the work performed by normal formatting.

Normal format
Erase the data management area / Check for defective disks / Take write-protection measures for defective parts.
Quick format
Only erase the data management area is executed.
Normal format is recommended for reusable hard disks.

Formatting does not erase the data,Data management area If you want to completely erase the data on the disk, you may physically destroy the disk or the disk because you may be able to recover the data by using recovery software etc. Repeat overwriting to Erase software To use.

Volume

The area that made the created partition available to the system VolumeSo, what you can create with a basic disk Simple volume You can think of it as almost synonymous with a partition on a basic disk.

Simple Volume Wizard

Windows Disk management で  Unallocated When creating a volume on a partition of, basic disk can only be a simple volume.

Striped volume , Span volume Needs conversion to dynamic disk.

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Creating a simple volume Disk management Select the unallocated partition with and from the context menu (right-click menu) New simple volume choose.

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New Simple Volume Wizard Will start, so "Next".

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Specify the size of the simple volume.

If you specify the maximum disk size, one partition will be a disk with one volume, and if you specify a size smaller than the maximum size, it will be a disk. UnallocatedThe volume is created with the area of.

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The available drive characters are displayed in a list, so assign any drive character.

You cannot access the drive without assigning a drive letter.

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Format this volume with the following settings Check "Next".

File system: NTFS
Allocation unit size: Default value
Volume label: Optional

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Adjust the volume size Simple Volume Wizard Repeatedly execute three Primary partitionWas created, the fourth is Extended partitionBecomes in the extended partition Logical driveIs made.

Create extended partition

If you want to create only the extended partition on the disk drive diskpart Use to configure the settings.

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スタート Right click Windows terminal Start (PowerShell) anddiskpart Enter Enter Key.

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When the User Account Control dialog is displayed, click "Yes" to allow.

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Because another window will open list disk Enter Enter Key.

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Check the disk number to create the partition.

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select disk Enter a space after and enter the disk number to create the partition. Enter Key.

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If you want all selected disks to be extended partitions create partition extended Enter.

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If you want to create an extended partition of any size create partition extended size = xxxxxx Enter to specify the size.

The unit of size is MB.
The size is specified in binary, so if you want a good number, use 2 as a base.
1024 B = 1 KB / 1024 KB = 1 MB / 1024 MB = 1 GB / 1024 GB = 1 TB
500 MB when creating a 512000 GB extended partition

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list partition Enter Enter Key.

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Check the partition number to create the logical drive.

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select partition Enter a partition number to create a logical drive by inserting a space after Enter Key.

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create partition logical size =xxxxxx Enter the size of the logical drive to be created in.

The unit is MB, and if you omit entering size, all the free space on the extended partition becomes one logical drive.
When creating multiple logical drives create partition logical size = xxxxxx Repeat the command of.

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Once the extended partition and logical drive have been created exitdiskpart And close the Windows terminal.

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Disk managementOpen, select the created logical drive from the context menu format choose.

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Set the format and click "OK".

File system: NTFS
Allocation unit size: Default value
Volume label: Optional

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A dialog will be displayed, so click "OK".

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The logical drive becomes available.

If no drive letter is assigned after formatting, select the logical drive and select the context menu. Change drive letter and path Specify the drive letter with.

Delete partition with DISKPART command

When formatting the disk that was used as the boot diskReserved by system If cannot be deleted Diskpart Delete with.

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スタート Right click Windows terminal Start (PowerShell) anddiskpart Enter Diskpart Start.

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Diskpart  When opens list disk Enter.

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Check the disk number to create the partition.

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select disk Specify the optical disk to delete the partition by inserting a space after.

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clean Clear the disk partition information by typing.

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Once the partition is deleted  exitdiskpart And close the Windows terminal.

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Disk management Open and from the context menu of the cleaned disk Disk initialization choose.

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Select the partition format and click "OK".

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